1. Many condition for add “ing” of the verb.

• Usually we add ing
work working
stand standing
help helping
learn learning

• When the verb ends in an e, we drop the e and add ing

come coming
have having
write writing

• If a one syllable (with only one vowel sound) verb ends in one consonant (for example p, t, r) that follows one vowel (for example a, o, e), we double the consonant.

swim swimming
get getting
stop stopping

• Some verbs have irregular ing form

lie lying
die dying
see seeing

2. ING Form Verbs have several different functions.
a. Shaping the meaning of IS in conjunction with the auxiliary verb Tobe.
Contoh: You are studying English now.
Lisa is cooking in the kitchen.
Didi and Kiki were painting the house when I came.
b. Establish NOUN who served the function SUBJECT in sentences.
Contoh: Fishing is one of my hobbies.
Smoking is not good for our health.
Fishing needs patience.
Reading English is easier than speaking it
The testing continues for hours.
Learning a new language takes a long time.

c. Establish NOUN who served OBJECT function in the sentence.
Contoh: My brother likes playing golf.
My uncle loves hunting the forest.
He dislikes keeping animals.
Father like smoking very much.
The workers must stop the digging.
Nobody understands his behaving like that.

d. After a preposition, serves as NOUN the preposition GROUP
Contoh: My brother is very much interested in engineering.
After saying good bye to his parents, John left his house.

e. Functioning as a word CIRCUMSTANCES, explaining noun.
Contoh: There is reading book and writing paper on the writing table in the siting room.

f. To start an additional group.
Contoh: While the cooking the meal, mother listened to the radio.
Driving along the road, we saw an accident happen in front of us.

3. Ing form verb used to show prohibition.
No parking/dilarang parkir.
No smoking/dilarang merokok.
No fishing/dilarang memancing.
No camping/dilarang berkemah.
No trespassing/dilarang masuk (tanpa izin).


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